Glaucoma is a medical condition in which fluid pressure increases within the eye. If untreated it can damage the optic nerve and lead to vision loss. The front part of the eye contains a clear fluid which nourishes the eye and gives it its shape. Our eye constantly produces this fluid. And, eliminates it away through a drainage system. However, if a person has glaucoma, the fluid drains too slowly out of the eye.
Different Types of Glaucoma
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This is the most common type and 9 out of 10 people with glaucoma have the open-angle type. According to the medical experts of reputed best eye hospital, open-angle glaucoma may be caused by pressure building up in your eye.
People suffering from high blood pressure are at higher risk for this type. Generally, in this type of glaucoma, people don’t have any symptoms until they start to lose their vision, and people may not notice vision loss right away.
According to a survey, about 1 out of 10,000 babies born in the United States have a defect (problem) in the eye that keeps fluid from draining normally. This is called congenital glaucoma. Children with congenital glaucoma may have cloudy eyes and might be sensitive to light.
Surgery can be used to treat congenital glaucoma. If surgery is done at an early stage, children with congenital glaucoma would not suffer from any permanent vision loss.
About 1 in 3 people with open-angle glaucoma might suffer from normal-tension type. It is a type of glaucoma that happens in people with normal eye pressure. You may be at higher risk for normal-tension glaucoma if you have a family history of normal-tension glaucoma or have had certain heart problems, like an irregular heartbeat or low blood pressure.
As per the doctors from well-known Multi Speciality hospital, treatments that lower eye pressure can help slow the disease and stop vision loss.
This type of glaucoma happens when the eye creates extra blood vessels that cover the part of your eye where fluid drains. It may also be caused by another medical condition such as diabetes or high blood pressure.
The symptoms of neovascular glaucoma are pain or redness in your eye, vision loss. This type of glaucoma can be difficult to be treated by the doctors.
When the pigment from your iris flakes off it can result in Pigment dispersion syndrome. Young men who are near-sighted are more likely to suffer from pigment dispersion syndrome as compared to others. Due to this type of eye condition, you may have blurry vision or observe rainbow-colored rings around lights, especially when you exercise. This condition may be treated by lowering eye pressure.
This is a type of open-angle glaucoma that happens in some people with exfoliation syndrome. It causes extra material to detach from parts of the eye and block fluid from draining.
According to the recent research, genetics may play a role in exfoliation glaucoma. Quite possibly, you are at higher risk if someone else in your family has exfoliation glaucoma. This disease can progress faster than primary open-angle glaucoma, and often causes higher eye pressure.
Uveitic glaucoma is a condition that causes inflammation in the eye. As per medical experts, about 2 in 10 people with uveitis will develop uveitic glaucoma. It may occur because uveitis can cause inflammation and scar tissue in the middle of the eye. This may harm or block the part of the eye where fluid drains out. Thereby, causing high eye pressure and leading to uveitic glaucoma.
Treatment for Glaucoma:-
Eye drops such as Prostaglandins, Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, Cholinergic agents, Beta blockers, etc. can be used as initial treatment. These will help reduce the amount of fluid the eye makes or improve drainage. However, it is essential to follow a healthcare professional’s instructions carefully for the best results and to prevent adverse effects such as stinging, redness, change in eye color or skin around the eye, headaches, etc.
In case the drugs do not help, or if the person cannot tolerate them, a doctor may recommend surgery, such as:-
Trabeculoplasty: In this type of surgery, a laser beam is used to unblock clogged drainage canals, thus, making it easier for fluid to drain out.
Filtering Surgery: The surgeon may open channels in the eye to improve fluid drainage if laser surgery does not help.
Drainage Implant: This is performed when glaucoma occurs in children. In this surgery, the surgeon inserts a small silicone tube into the eye to help improve drainage.
For further information and details about Glaucoma, you must consult your doctor.